WHY SHOULD I HIRE YOU?
This is a numerical reasoning test similar to those used by many employers when recruiting. It also shows how the answers are worked out.
Although this test is fairly typical of the types of test many employers use, please remember that it is for practise only. It is not being taken under examination conditions, and therefore although you are given a score, this is just to satisfy your curiosity and to give you a target to aim for.
The test will start with 2 example questions which will not be marked or timed. Click on the “First Question” button below to begin. Click on the button beneath your answer to answer it. You can change your answer by clicking on another button.You can also go back to the previous question, by clicking on the previous question button. Some questions have graphs or tables which you will need to refer to. These will be displayed above the question.
This is a numerical reasoning test similar to those used by many employers when recruiting graduates. It also shows how to work out the answers. This test is very similar to those used for finance job recruitment: banking, accountancy and insurance.
Although this test is fairly typical of the types of test many employers use, please remember that it is for practise only. It is not being taken under examination conditions, and therefore although you are given a score, this is just to satisfy your curiosity and to give you a target to aim for.
You are strongly recommended to use a calculator and scrap paper during this test. Please have a pen and scrap paper to hand before you start.
The test will start with 3 example questions which will not be marked or timed. The test consists of 22 questions and you will have 25 minutes to answer these. As this is a practice test you can continue to answer questions after the formal test has finished if you wish to. Click on the “Go to First Example” button below to begin. Click on the button to the left of your answer to answer it. You can change your answer by clicking on another button.You can also go back to the previous question, by clicking on the previous question button. Questions have graphs or tables which you will need to refer to. These will be displayed above the question.
This test involves letter sequences and tests your ability to think logically and analytically. Some employers use similar tests as part of their selection procedures and this test will give you some idea of what to expect.
The test has 27 questions and you will have 12 minutes to do them. At the end of the test (when 12 minutes have elapsed), you will be given a score. You can still continue answering questions for practice after this point, but your score will not change.
The test will start with two example questions which will not be marked or timed. Look at the sequence and work out which of the five numbers below it is the next member of the sequence. Now click on the “First Question” button below to begin. Click on the button beneath your answer to answer it. You can change your answer by clicking on another button.You can also go back to the previous question, by clicking on the previous question button. When you have finished the test click on“Get Your Score”
The alphabet is given below to help you:
This is a non-verbal reasoning test similar to those used by many employers when recruiting. It also shows how the answers are worked out. Although this test is fairly typical of the types of test employers use, please remember that it is for practice only. It is not being taken under examination conditions, and therefore although you are given a score, this is to satisfy your curiosity and to give you a target to aim for.
This test will test your non-verbal reasoning as the questions appear in diagrammatic and pictorial form. Such test are also called diagrammatic or abstract reasoning tests.
Non-verbal reasoning involves the ability to understand and analyse visual information and solve problems using visual reasoning. For example: identifying relationships, similarities and differences between shapes and patterns, recognizing visual sequences and relationships between objects, and remembering these.
It enables students to analyse and solve complex problems without relying upon or being limited by language skills. As these tests don’t require reading they can give insight into the abilities of those who have problems with reading and thinking verbally, those who may lack motivation, whose native language isn’t English and those with specific learning difficulties.
They involve the ability to reason with novel material, without the need to draw on learned knowledge and measure how easily you may acquire new concepts in subjects such as mathematics, physics, computing, engineering, science, design and technology, architecture and other jobs which involve working with visual information such as air traffic controller and pilot.
Diagrammatic reasoning (also called abstract reasoning) tests provide good measures of general intelligence. They involve evaluating processes represented via diagrams, understanding logical rules and process diagrams and identifying causes. Abstract reasoning is used where the ability to cope with complexity and deal with novelty is required rather than relying on previous experience.
Spatial reasoning tests predict the ability to work with complex plans. Spatial reasoning involves mentally rotating two dimensional representations of three dimensional shapes. It is needed in engineering settings, architecture and interior design.
This test has 20 questions and you will have 12 minutes to answer these. At the end of the test (when 12 minutes have elapsed), you will be given a score. You can still continue to answer questions after this point, but your score will not change. If you finish early and want your results, click on “Get Your Score”.
The test will start with 2 example questions which will not be marked or timed.
In the first example the top row of four boxes make up a series from left to right. You have to decide which of the 5 boxes underneath, marked A to E, will be the next in the sequence. For example in the first example, the top four boxes have 1, 2 , 3 , and 4 dots respectively. Obviously, the next box in the sequence will have 5 dots, which is box D, so click on button B to answer.
Click on the “First Question” button below to begin. Click on one of the buttons next to the letters A to E to answer. You can change your answer by clicking on another button.You can also go back to the previous question, by clicking on the previous question button.
I am so clever that sometimes I don’t understand a single word of what I am saying.
These practice tests are designed for UNIVERSITY OF KENT STUDENTS AND GRADUATES.
Other web users are most welcome to use this test, but no feedback can be given or correspondence entered into regarding results.
Most employers who use psychometric tests in graduate selection will include a verbal reasoning test. This is because there are very few graduate careers which don’t require the ability to understand, analyse and interpret written information, often of a complex or specialised nature.
This test includes a number of short passages of text followed by statements based on the information given in the passage. You are asked to indicate whether the statements are true or false, or whether it is not possible to say so either way. In answering these questions, use only the information given in the passage and do not try and answer them in the light of any more detailed knowledge which you personally may have.
Below you will find an example question to try. It is a selection of a passage of text which will be followed by four statements. Read the passage carefully and then, using only the information given in the passage, for each statement choose whether it isdefinitely true, definitely untrue, or you have insufficient information to answer.
The test has 32 questions and you will have 20 minutes to do them. At the end of the test (when 20 minutes have elapsed), you will be given a score. You can still continue answering questions for practice after this point, but your score will not change.
The test will start with four example questions which will not be marked or timed. Now click on the “First Question”button below to begin. Click on the button beneath your answer to answer it. You can change your answer by clicking on another button.You can also go back to the previous question, by clicking on the previous question button. When you have finished the test, click on “Get Your Score”.
This test tests your knowledge of the English Language. by the use of synonyms and antonyms. Some employers use similar tests as part of their selection procedures and this test will give you some idea of what to expect.
The test has 39 questions and you will have 5 minutes to do them. At the end of the test (when 5 minutes have elapsed), you will be given a score. You can still continue answering questions for practice after this point, but your score will not change. In the test you will not be told which words are synonyms and which are antonyms.
The test will start with two example questions which will not be marked or timed. Look at the word and work out which of the three other words below it is either its synonym or antonym. Now click on the “First Question” button below to begin. Click on the button beneath your answer to answer it. You can change your answer by clicking on another button.You can also go back to the previous question, by clicking on the previous question button. When you have finished the test click on“Get Your Score”
The answers to the examples are as follows:
Two things are infinite: the universe and human stupidity; and I’m not sure about the universe.
This practice test involves verbal logic puzzles, some of which have a numerical element. They test your ability to think logically, analytically and numerically, and also to extract meaning from complex information.. Some employers use similar tests as part of their selection procedures and this test will give you some idea of what to expect.
The test has 21 questions and you will have 40 minutes to do them. At the end of the test (when 40 minutes have elapsed), you will be given a score. You are allowed to use scrap paper and a calculator for working out answers.
The test will start with three easy example questions which will not be marked or timed. Now click on the “First Question” button below to begin. Click on the button beneath your answer to answer it. You can change your answer by clicking on another button.You can also go back to the previous question, by clicking on the previous question button. When you have finished the test click on “Get Your Score”
The test has 26 questions and you will have 40 minutes to do them. At the end of the test (when 40 minutes have elapsed), you will be given a score. Please use SCRAP PAPER and a CALCULATOR for working out answers. Please note that this is quite a demanding test.
The test will start with three easy example questions which will not be marked or timed. Now click on the “Go to First Example” button below to begin. Click on the radio button next to your answer to answer it. You can change your answer by clicking on another button.You can also go back to the previous question, by clicking on the previous question button. If you are certain you have finished the test you can click on “Get Your Score”.
This is a test of your knowledge of the meanings of different words. It is a moderately difficult test and uses some rarely heard words.
The test will start with 3 example questions which will not be marked or timed. The test consists of 44 questions and you will have 10 minutes to answer these. Click on the “Go to First Example” button below to begin. Click on the button to the left of your answer to answer it. You can change your answer by clicking on another button.You can also go back to the previous question, by clicking on the previous question button.
Homonyms are words that sound the same but have different meanings, for example fair (light skinned) and fair (reasonable). Homophones are a type of homonym that also sound the same and have different meanings, but also have different spellings, for example aloud and allowed.
Many homonyms and homophones are commonly and increasingly confused in CVs, covering letters and application forms. This seems to be stemming from the use of on-line thesauruses in word-processors, when an applicant will try to replace a short word, with a more impressively sounding longer word, but without quite understanding its precise meaning!
The test has 55 questions and you will have 6 minutes to do them. At the end of the test (when 6 minutes have elapsed), you will be given a score.
The test will start with three easy example questions which will not be marked or timed. Look at the sequence and work out which of the five numbers below it is the next member of the sequence. Now click on the “First Question” button below to begin. Click on the button beneath your answer to answer it. You can change your answer by clicking on another button.You can also go back to the previous question, by clicking on the previous question button. When you have finished the test click on “Get Your Score”
A survey by forum3 found that spelling mistakes and basic grammatical errors in job applications were the biggest turn-off for employers. Candidates sending CVs and letters without spelling mistakes are 61% more likely to receive a reply and 26% more likely to be given an interview:
“In the age of the spell-checker, there is no excuse for spelling mistakes. It is one of employers’ main bug bears that some graduates, who are considered the most educated group in the country, make elementary spelling mistakes.”
However, using a spell checker is not sufficient, as errors such as fro instead of for, grate instead of great and form instead of from will not be picked up, so you need to read your application carefully as well. See our CVs Page for more details of the above research.
Innovation distinguishes between a leader and a follower.
Creativity is just connecting things. When you ask creative people how they did something, they feel a little guilty because they didn’t really do it, they just saw something. It seemed obvious to them after a while. That’s because they were able to connect experiences they’ve had and synthesise new things.
Lateral thinking, is the ability to think creatively, or “outside the box” as it is sometimes referred to in business, to use your inspiration and imagination to solve problems by looking at them from unexpected perspectives. Lateral thinking involves discarding the obvious, leaving behind traditional modes of thought, and throwing away preconceptions.
It’s very important in careers such as advertising, marketing, the media and art and design where you may get questions in the selection process along the lines of “Write down one hundred ways to use a brick/paperclip”, but it can also be of value in the jobhunting process itself.
A number of graduates have tried the old and hackneyed methods of trying to gain the selector’s attention, such as enclosing a tea bag with their application, so that the selector could take a break to have a cup of tea before reading it. Others have send their CV to newspapers in a magazine format, but below are a couple of truly original approaches:
A graduate had been trying to get into investment banking, but without success and had exhausted all the normal routes. As a last resort, he had 100 postcard-sized CVs printed. He then went round the “Square Mile” in the City, where all the main financial organisations in London are located and proceeded to place one of these CVs under the windscreen of every Rolls Royce and top of the range BMW and Mercedes he came across. Next day, he had several ‘phone calls offering him interviews from the senior executives whom the cars belonged to. Note that we are not advocating this approach: one graduate jobseeker put up 200 poster sized CVs around Hull and ended up being fined for bill posting!
A student wanted to become a trainee journalist on her local newspaper. She decided to carefully analyse the content of the paper and compared it with similar local papers. She conducted a small survey of readers’ opinions on the paper by interviewing passers-by in the city centre. Using this information, she drew up a list of possible changes to the paper, wrote a sample article to show what she had in mind and sent these to the editor. The editor invited her in to discuss her suggestions – they had a long discussion and the next vacancy that arose was offered to her without competition.
|Creative thinking is not a talent, it is a skill that can be learnt.
Edward de Bono
Intelligence is something we are born with. Thinking is a skill that must be learned.
Edward de Bono
If they give you ruled paper, write the other way.
Juan Ramón Jiménez
If people aren’t calling you crazy, you aren’t thinking big enough.
One New York graduate who wished to work in a top advertising agency Googled the names of the creative directors of these agencies and then spent just six dollars on a set of Google ads that were triggered when the directors searched for their own names. The adverts said “Hey, (creative directors name), Googling yourself is a lot of fun. Hiring me is fun, too” Of the five directors he targeted, four gave him an interview and two offered him a jobwww.youtube.com/watch?v=7FRwCs99DWg
The chocolate bar CV. A job hunter made his CV as the wrapper for a chocolate bar. It turned out to be very popular with recruiters!www.cnbc.com/id/100482311
For more examples of lateral thinking in jobhunting see our Creative Careers Search page
and our Riddles test
The following questions will test your ability to think laterally. If you get more than 50% of these right you’re certainly strong on your lateral thinking skills (or maybe you’re just good at quizzes!)
|Jackie Stewart, three times World Champion Formula One racing driver had undiagnosed dyslexia and was unable to complete his school education. He said: “When you’ve got dyslexia and you find something you’re good at, you put more into it than anyone else; you can’t think the way of the clever folk, so you’re always thinking out of the box.”|
“The fear of making a mistake, of risking an error, or of being told you are wrong is constantly with us. And that’s a shame. Making mistakes is not the same thing as being creative, but if you are not willing to make mistakes, then it is impossible to be truly creative. I f your state of mind is coming from a place of fear and risk avoidance, then you will always settle for the safe solutions—the solutions already applied many times before.
Failing is ﬁne, necessary in fact. But avoiding experimentation or risk—especially out of fear of what others may think—is something that will gnaw at your gut more than any ephemeral failure. A failure is in the past. It’s done and over. In fact, it doesn’t exist. But worrying about “what might be if…” or “what might have been if I had… ” are pieces of baggage you carry around daily. They’re heavy, and they’ll kill your creative spirit. Take chances and stretch yourself. You’re only here on this planet once, and for a very short time at that. Why not just see how gifted you are?”
Daniel Garr – Presentation Zen
|I once visited a major pharmaceutical company to discuss their graduate recruitment for marketing. They told me that one of the key attributes they looked for was Helicopter Ability: the ability to soar above a problem and to see all aspects of it, to stand back and see the bigger picture, the wood rather than the trees. Creativity involves being able tothink outside the box to find solutions to unpredictable problems. This needs logic and analysis, but also the ability to see the big-picture and this involves a creative mind.|
Here’s to the crazy ones. The misfits. The rebels. The troublemakers. The round pegs in the square holes. The ones who see things differently. They’re not fond of rules. And they have no respect for the status quo. You can quote them, disagree with them, glorify or vilify them. About the only thing you can’t do is ignore them. Because they change things. They push the human race forward. And while some may see them as the crazy ones, we see genius. Because the people who are crazy enough to think they can change the world, are the ones who do.
The following questions will test your ability to think laterally. If you get more than 50% of these right you’re certainly strong on your lateral thinking skills (or maybe you’re just good at puzzles!)
|“Rabbit’s clever,” said Pooh thoughtfully.
“Yes,” said Piglet, “Rabbit’s clever.”
“And he has Brain.”
“Yes,” said Piglet, “Rabbit has Brain.”
There was a long silence.
“I suppose,” said Pooh, “that that’s why he never understands anything.”
“Sand,” says the man.
The officer does another thorough examination and again discovers that the sacks contain nothing but sand. He gives the sand back to the man, and the man again crosses the border.
This sequence of events repeats every day for the next three years. Then one day, the man doesn’t show up. The border official meets up with him in a restaurant in the city. The officer says, “I know you’re smuggling something and it’s driving me crazy. It’s all I think about. I can’t even sleep. Just between you and me, what are you smuggling?”
What is the man smuggling?
|If you’re not failing every now and again, it’s a sign you’re not doing anything very innovative.
The only man who never makes a mistake is the man who never does anything.
I have not failed. I’ve just found 10,000 ways that won’t work.
Thomas Alva Edison
Never be afraid to try, remember…
Check your answers below. If you got 15 or more right you are a true lateral thinking genius!
For more examples of lateral thinking in jobhunting see our Creative Careers Search page
Also see the logic puzzle at www.kent.ac.uk/careers/sk/problem-solving-skills.htm#logic
The following questions will test your ability to think laterally and mathematically. If you get more than 50% of these right you’re certainly strong on your numerical and lateral thinking skills.
Questions start easy and get progressively harder.
What is the code for the month of August?
All employers are keen to recruit graduates who are able to cooperate, solve problems and work in teams. As less hierarchical organisations have emerged with project teams, self-managed work teams and management teams, so the requirements to ‘Get on well with people’, and to ‘Work with and through others‘ become increasingly important.
Teamwork involves working confidently within a group, contributing your own ideas effectively, taking a share of the responsibility, being assertive – rather than passive or aggressive, accepting and learning from constructive criticism and giving positive, constructive feedback to others.
The questionnaire which follows should help you to analyse the workings of a group and should help you to reach some tentative conclusions about your role in a team. For this exercise you will need to think of teams of which you are or were a part. These could be project groups for your course, seminar groups, sports teams, societies or clubs in which you were involved, vacation jobs in which you were part of a team, or even perhaps when you were sharing a house with a group of students.
Try to answer the 28 questions as honestly as you can. Click on “First Question” to begin. Please try to answer ALL the questions. You can go back to questions to change your answers by clicking on the previous question button.
Your score can be from 0 to a maximum of 12 on each of seven group roles. Make a note of your scores or print out the page and then see below to find out what these roles involve.
There are a number of different roles that people adopt in meetings, some of which are listed below. These roles are not always constant – one person might adopt several of these roles during one meeting or change roles depending on what is being discussed. Your score for each category should give you some idea of which of these roles you play in teams.
Energises groups when motivation is low through humour or through being enthusiastic. They are positive individuals who support and praise other group members. They don’t like sitting around. They like to move things along by suggesting ideas, by clarifying the ideas of others and by confronting problems. They may use humour to break tensions in the group.
They may say:
“We CAN do this!”
“That’s a great idea!”
Destructive or selfish group roles to avoid!
A committee is a group of people who individually can do nothing, but who, as a group, can meet and decide that nothing can be done.
Tries to maintain harmony among the team members. They are sociable, interested in others and will introduce people, draw them out and make them feel comfortable. They may be willing to change their own views to get a group decision. They work well with different people and can be depended on to promote a positive atmosphere, helping the team to gel. They pull people and tasks together thereby developing rapport. They are tolerant individuals and good listeners who will listen carefully to the views of other group members. They are good judges of people, diplomatic and sensitive to the feelings of others and not seen as a threat. They are able to recognise and resolve differences of opinion and the the development of conflict, they enable “difficult” team-members to contribute positively.
They may say:
“We haven’t heard from Mike yet: I’d like to hear what you think about this.”
“I’m not sure I agree. What are your reasons for saying that?”
Good leaders direct the sequence of steps the group takes and keep the group “on-track”. They are good at controlling people and events and coordinating resources. They have the energy, determination and initiative to overcome obstacles and bring competitive drive to the team. They give shape to the team effort. They recognise the skills of each individual and how they can be used. Leaders are outgoing individuals who have to be careful not to be domineering. They can sometimes steamroller the team but get results quickly. They may become impatient with complacency and lack of progress and may sometimes overreact. Also see our leadership styles test.
They may say
“Let’s come back to this later if we have time.”
“We need to move on to the next step.”
“Sue, what do you think about this idea?”
Calm, reflective individuals who summarise the group’s discussion and conclusions. They clarify group objectives and elaborate on the ideas of others. They may go into detail about how the group’s plans would work and tie up loose ends. They are good mediators and seek consensus.
They may say:
“So here’s what we’ve decided so far”
“I think you’re right, but we could also add ….”
The “Top Ten” Skills shortages among graduates
|% of employers surveyed|
|4||Ability to work in a team||33%|
|7||Subject Knowledge & competence||19%|
|10||Good general education||15%|
|Source: Association of Graduate Recruiters “Skills for Graduates in the 21st Century” www.agr.org.uk|
The ideas person suggests new ideas to solve group problems or suggests new ways for the group to organize the task. They dislike orthodoxy and are not too concerned with practicalities. They provide suggestions and proposals that are often original and radical. They are more concerned with the big picture than with details. They may get bored after the initial impetus wears off. See our lateral thinking skills page
They may say
“Why don’t we consider doing it this way?”
Evaluators help the group to avoid coming to agreement too quickly. They tend to be slow in coming to a decision because of a need to think things over. They are the logical, analytical, objective people in the team and offer measured, dispassionate critical analysis. They contribute at times of crucial decision making because they are capable of evaluating competing proposals. They may suggest alternative ideas.
They may say:
“What other possibilities are there?”
or “Let’s try to look at this another way.”
or “I’m not sure we’re on the right track.”
The recorder keeps the group focused and organised. They make sure that everyone is helping with the project.They are usually the first person to offer to take notes to keep a record of ideas and decisions. They also like to act as time-keeper, to allocate times to specific tasks and remind the team to keep to them, or act as a spokesperson, to deliver the ideas and findings of the group. They may check that all members understand and agree on plans and actions and know their roles and responsibilities. They act as the memory of the group.
They may say:
“We only have five minutes left, so we need to come to agreement now!”
“Do we all understand this chart?”
“Are we all in agreement on this?”
After all is said and done, more is said than done.
If you are invited to a selection centre as part of the interview process, it’s very likely that you will have a group task, such as a case study, where your performance in the group will be assessed. Here are some tips to help you to perform well. For more on assessment centres see our page on this.
|Questions they might expect to face at most interviews (e.g. asking for an example of team building, or showing that they are a fast learner) are difficult to answer well if you are not used to them, and haven’t prepared a list of examples to draw from. We’d recommend that students consider why we’re asking the question. For example, a good answer on team building outlines difficulties you may have had with other team-members and shows that you understand what you need to do to overcome those difficulties, rather than simply to tell the interviewer that the team worked together really well.
Companies are wasting thousands of poundes every day on irrelevant meetings
A study by Protecting.co.uk found that a one hour meeting attended by ten staff costs at least £250 in salaries alone.
“The sad fact is that many meetings can be replaced with something cheaper and more efficient, with annual savings running into thousands,” said Protecting.co.uk spokesperson Mark Hall.
The average British employee will sit through 6,240 meetings in their career. 60% of the workers studied described meetings as “pointless”. 20% had dozed off during a meeting. 70% said they constantly zone out in meetings. Nearly half spend their time doodling and 29% stare aimlessly out of a window. Many said that a quick and concise conference call was more effective than a lengthy meeting which often resulted in expensive travel expenses.
Here are the sort of criteria on which your contributions to a group exercise at a selection centre might be assessed. You might like to use them to make notes on the contributions of particular group members.
Facilitation of the Discussion
There was once a team of four individuals called respectively: Everyone, Someone, Anyone and Nobody.
There was an important job to be done and Everyone was sure that Someone would do it.
Anyone could have done it, but Nobody did it.
Someone got angry about this, because it was Everyone’s job.
Everyone thought Anyone could do it, but Nobody realised that Everyone wouldn’t do it.
It ended up that Everyone blamed Someone when Nobody did what Anyone could have done.
Innovation distinguishes between a leader and a follower
Steve Jobs (founder of Apple)
The following exercise will ask you 50 questions about your leadership style, and then give you an idea of your typical styles.
If you are still a student you might like to answer the questions as you would if you were a manager in an organisation, rather than the way you would if, for example, you were president of a student society where the leadership style is more casual than that in most work environments.
Now make a note of your scores which can vary up to a maximum of 50 for each style. The highest scores should suggest your most liked styles of leadership, and the lowest scores, the styles that are least like you.
Once you have finished the test go to the table below where you’ll find explanations of each of the leadership styles.
Management training is not new
The following is from the Tao Te Ching written in the 6th century BC
The best rulers are scarcely known by their subjects;
Harry Selfridge quotes
Transactional: the “transaction” is that the organisation rewards (pays) the team, in return for their work & compliance.
Also related toauthoritarian
|Charismatic leadership is very similar, where the leader depends on his/her charisma & energy to inspire staff.||Democratic orConsulting
Servant: A leader who is not formally recognized. Leads just by meeting the needs of the team. Whole team is involved in decisions.
Amount of control
|High: telling, directing, controlling.||High: telling, directing, controlling.||Medium: selling, reasoning, persuading, delegating.||Medium: selling, reasoning, persuading, consulting.||Low: advising, counseling, participating, observing, joining.|
What it involves
|The leader has a lot of power over team members & has the right to reward good performance or punish members if they don’t reach the agreed standard.
They tell their team what they want done & how without often asking for advice from team members. Team members are given little opportunity to make suggestions, even if these would be in the team’s interest.
It should normally only be used occasionally
The focus is on short-term tasks so it’smore a a method of managing rather a true leadership style
|Work “by the book”: team members follow procedures precisely.
Focuses only on getting the job done, & can be quite autocratic.
Little thought given to the well-being of team members
Task Orientated vs relationship orientated: both procedural & transformational leaders are usually needed. “managers” focus on tasks while “leaders” focus on people.
|The leader inspiresteam with their vision of what should happen. They supply the main goal, but allow members to choose their own way of reaching it.
The leader is totally focused on organizing, supporting & developing the team.
The leader is always looking for ideas that move towards the organisation’s vision.
Transformation leaders are very visible, & spend lot of time communicating.Communication is the basis for achievement by focusing the group on the required outcome. They don’t necessarily lead from the front, as they tend to delegate responsibility.
|Builds consensus through participation:the leader makes the final decision, but the team to contribute to thedecision-making process.
The leader asks the team’s opinions & uses these to make decisions. The team is kept informed & are allowed to discuss & propose changes to policy.
The leader can’t know everything: this is why you employ skillful team members.
This style is not a sign of weakness, more a sign of strength your team will respect.
|Team members make the decisions but leader is still responsible for these.
Leader asks for the team’s opinions. Team is left to make its own decisions which are then sanctioned by the leader.
Leader participates in the discussion as a normal team member & agrees in advance to carry out whatever decision the group makes. Team members are left to get on with their tasks.
Effective if the leader monitors what is being achieved & regularly communicates this back to the team.
|Works well when you’re short on time, & team is well motivated
For some routine & unskilled tasks.
In a crisis.
With difficult employees.
|Tasks requiring great attention to detail.
Appropriate for work involving safetyrisks such as working with machinery or wherelarge sums of money are involved.
|This is the most common modern leadership style.||When organisationalflexibility & a sense of individual responsibility is needed,
Where team working is essential
When quality is more important than speed or productivity.
|When you haveconfidence & trust in your team.
Where team members are experienced & skilled; they can analyse the situation & determine what needs to be done & how to do it.(e.g. team of research scientists).
|Can achieve results quickly
In research done on this groups were found to be most productive under autocratic, but if theleader was absent work stopped.
|Clearly defines the tasks & the roles required.
Puts structures in place: planning, organization & monitoring is usually good.
|Motivates the team to be effective & efficient.
Tends to lead to goodteamwork & creative collaboration.
The enthusiasm & energy of a transformational leader is often infectious.
Can communicate an inspirational vision of the future
|Mutual benefit:allows members to feel part of the team & leader to make better decisions.
Members feel in control & motivated to work hard.Increases job satisfaction by involving the team in decisions. Helps todevelop team members’ skills.
Most consistent in quality & productivity
|Increasingly necessary in a world where leaders achieve power on the basis of their ideals & values.
You can’t do everything so you have to setpriorities & delegate some tasks.
|Team doesn’t gain from creativity & knowledge of members, so benefits of teamwork are lost.
Staff can’t improve their job satisfaction& may resent the way they are treated leading to high absenteeism & staff turnover.
Serious limitationsbut still much used. Sometimes thought of as bullying but this isn’t a valid authoritarian style.
|The inflexibility & high levels of control exerted can demoralize team members, & reduce the organisation’sability to react to changing circumstances
Similar problems to autocratic leadership:difficulties in motivating & retaining team members.
|Procedural & transformational leadership are symbiotic. The procedural leaders (managers) ensure routine work is done well, while the transformational leaders focus on initiatives that add value. The transformational leaderfocuses on the big picture, but needs to be surrounded by people who take care of the details.
Taken to extremes, can lead to failure to achieve the team’s goals.
|This style may result in indecision, & some team members may be left feeling confused & leaderless.
As participation takes time things may happen more slowly than with an autocratic approach, but often the end result is better.
|Often less effective in terms of quality and productivity than other methods.
Not good in competitive situations.
Often happens naturally in situations where managers are not exerting sufficient control.
Leadership involves managing, coordinating and supervising, taking responsibility for people; directing, organising and motivating them. A good leader will use a variety of styles of leadership according to the situation whereas bad leaders tend to fall in to just one style. In practice, most leaders use both task-oriented and people-oriented styles of leadership.
Managing a group project
At university, a participative style may be most appropriate. Whereas a production manager in a factory may need to use aprocedural or authoritative style much or the time. So you need to take into account the nature of the task.
A fire officer dealing with a serious fire may need to beauthoritative, making instant decisions and barking out commands, but when training staff, a participative style will be more effective.
Different individuals also require different styles. You may need to manage an intelligent, competent and trustworthy team member by using transformational techniques whereas someone who is lazy and unreliable may require an authoritarian style.
The “Top Ten” Skills shortages among graduates
|% of employers surveyed|
|4||Ability to work in a team||33%|
|7||Subject Knowledge & competence||19%|
|10||Good general education||15%|
|Source: Association of Graduate Recruiters “Skills for Graduates in the 21st Century” www.agr.org.uk|
Rewards such as bonuses provide a short term boost to performance but ultimately reduce long term motivation. Performance related pay and the carrot and stick approach have little or no long term value in motivating staff.
Research from the Institute of Leadership & Management found that few employees said that bonuses motivated them to work harder.
Many top managers may be narcissists
A study by Christian Grimso of BI Business School claimed that many top managers suffer from narcissism. Narcissists can take tough decisions and are preoccupied with success and power. They have great self-confidence so interview well. However their self-importance can lead to poor leadership performance as they run their own agenda, and lack the ability to relate to others.
Gimso said: “People with narcissistic personality disorders will be interested in dominance, status, recognition, power and admiration. They may not think twice about using others to achieve their goals.”
According to those surveyed the most important motivators were:
Getting regular feedback, allowing staff autonomy in their role, the opportunity to innovate and improved office environments also helped
Good managers are key motivators who can make a real difference to their teams. The ‘five fundamentals’ of good management: coaching, giving feedback, listening, rewarding and recognising success and performance management. Something as simple as hearing ‘you’ve done a really good job on ….’ can strongly boost to an employee’s confidence, deliver a sense of pride and satisfaction and encourage them to put more into their work.
Who cares, wins!
The MoralDNA report from the Chartered Management Institute found that ethical leadership is a critical driver of performance. Where coaching, visionary and democratic leadership styles predominated 75% of respondents said effectiveness of management was excellent, compared to only 18% where command and control leadership was predominant.
Ethics were key to employee engagement. Managers in organisations with excellent staff satisfaction scored 13% higher on the ethic of care. It also affected the employer’s ability to attract new staff where there was an 8% difference between the best and worst-rated employers.
Ann Francke, Chief Executive of CMI, said: “When it comes to management and leadership in the 21st century, the truth is that who cares, wins.”
Two thirds (61%) of employees said their workplace had anappraisal system, but a quarter of respondents (25%) think that appraisals are performed poorly by their manager. Appraisals were less effective at driving the performance and motivation among female employees.
See our page on What makes us happy at work? for more on this.
“If you give people freedom, they will amaze you. Get out of their way and they will do the right thing 99% of the time.They’ll do remarkable things and all you need to do is give them a little infrastructure and a lot of room to change the world. And I think that holds in any industry.”
At Google, “Failure is celebrated. It’s ok to fail, and that is culturally encouraged. We just want people to fail fast, so that they don’t get stuck doing the wrong thing for too long because they are afraid to admit that it is not working. So failure, is encouraged – obviously we don’t want people to be constantly failing – but I think its culturally ok to admit your mistakes, say that didn’t work and move on to the next thing.”
|The boss returned from lunch in a good mood and called the whole staff in to listen to a couple of jokes he had picked up.
Everybody but one girl laughed uproariously.
“What’s the matter?” asked the boss. “Haven’t you got a sense of humour?”
“I don’t have to laugh”, she replied. “I’m leaving on Friday.”
Aimee O’Malley, Google at CIPD Annual Conference
Exercises like this one get you thinking about different ways of leading, and about attributes that make a good leader …. but they are no substitute for reality. Get involved in leading groups, whether is be leading a group project, chairing a student society, captaining a sports team or even being a playscheme helper. Carefully observe what is working for you and learn from your mistakes.
“A chief is a man who assumes responsibility. He says, ‘I was beaten’; he does not say ‘My men were beaten.'”
“Keep away from people who try to belittle your ambitions. Small people always do that, but the really great make you feel that you, too, can become great.”
Unlike top management at Enron, exemplary leaders reward dissent. They encourage it. They understand that, whatever momentary discomfort they experience as a result of being told they might be wrong, it is more than offset by the fact that the information will help them make better decisions.
“He tells you what you want to hear, he tries to talk you up, he tries to give you the belief and you go there to do the work for him. He knows what I can do. Before the game he told me ‘King, listen to me, do your magic – you are the best’. When you hear that from your coach, you want to do something for him.”
Kanu talking about Harry Rednapp to BBC Sport
You don’t manage people, you manage things. You lead people. We went overboard on management and forgot about leadership. It might help if we ran the MBAs out of Washington.
I was Social Secretary of the European Society on campus. We decided to mark Europe Day last May by organising a programme of social and cultural events representing all the EU member countries. I had to find people willing to take part: some were members of our own Society but I also approached other societies on campus, such as the French Society, and had to seek out individuals to make sure that all 15 countries were represented.
Once I had a full complement of people willing to contribute I could draw up a programme of events for the day and we held regular meetings to monitor progress and iron out any problems.
On the day there were 15 different events running from a French breakfast with coffee and croissants through films, lectures and musical recitals through to a late-night disco with music from all over Europe. Several hundred students took part in them and the European Society signed up over 30 new members
When I volunteered at an Oxfam Charity Shop, there were very few employees. I was therefore given a large amount of responsibility from my first day.
As I was often the only employee in the actual shop, it was necessary for me to manage the maintenance of the store – as new volunteers were recruited it became my duty to train them in a variety of tasks. I had to learn to delegate responsibility and learn how to handle occasionally difficult customers with tact.
I learned a lot about how to take responsibility and it gave me confidence that I could enter a management role at some stage in the future.
Your strengths are a mixture of your talents, knowledge and skills. The theory behind strengths is based on positive psychology: everyone has strengths they are born with but few people know what these are. By identifying your strengths and matching yourself to the role, you will enjoy it more and perform better that those who have to try hard to fill the role.
When you are using your strengths, you demonstrate flow.
When involved in flow activities:
Using your strengths focuses on doing more of what you are good at rather than what you are just capable of doing.
High achievers spend most of their time using their strengths. They focus on developing strengths and managing weaknesses. They may not have more strengths than the average individual, but they HAVE learned to utilise them better and to apply them to new situations.
Your scores can vary from a minimum of 0 to a maximum of 16. Write them down for future reference. Now you have identified your key strengths, you can find out more about these below.
Cautious individuals have a few deep friendships rather than many superficial relationships. They need to spend time alone and prefer one to one communication to large groups, preferring to listen rather than talk. They may be more self conscious and apprehensive in social situations and fear social judgement more, but they tend to have good judgment themselves and are often careful thinkers, spending a lot of time reflecting. They have enhanced responses to subtleties in the environment due to stronger cognitive processing of stimuli than is found in extrovert individuals. They are often good at solving problems.
A cautious nature is sometimes linked to introversion. Some people think that introversion is negative but here are some introverts who rather counteract this suggestion: Charles Darwin, Abraham Lincoln, Mahatma Ghandi, Nelson Mandela, Audrey Hepburn, Alfred Hitchcock, Clint Eastwood, Albert Einstein, Grace Kelly, Henry Ford, Isaac Newton, and Johnny Depp!
Cautious people don’t like to take risks, taking care when making decisions, considering all the consequences, and carefully considering what they do or say. Cautious people tend to make better parents having a better long-term memory, allowing them to assess risks more effectively than bolder people. Studies by Daniel Nettle (Newcastle University) suggest that although cautious individuals tend to have fewer sexual partners than extroverts, they are less likely to be in hospital due to accidents or illness.
They often do very well in finance and law e.g. solicitor, legal executive, accountant, air traffic controller, insurance underwriter,publishing editor, actuary, medically-related jobs such as doctor, nurse and occupational therapist
These are very sociable types; they like large groups and are talkative, gregarious, and extrovert
They tend to be impulsive, acting first, and thinking later, thinking on their feet and making quick decisions. Excitable, they seek new sensations, enjoying variety and change in relationships. They are usually cheerful and optimistic and assertive.
They are often active, doing lots of sport and exercise but are also more likely to smoke and drink.
INTERESTING FACT: People tend to become more outgoing as they grow older.
Caring individuals are kind, generous and compassionate. They have a high capacity to give altruistic love and be loved, to give and accept feelings and emotions.
They like helping others and taking care of them, often thinking about the needs of others more than their own needs. They value close relations in particular those where sharing and caring are reciprocated.
Naturally sensitive to people needs and reactions, they instinctively employ personal feelings and consider the impact on others when they have to make decisions.
They are unsettled by conflict, hating disharmony.
Creatives are full of ideas. They are original, ingenious and quick to find new perspectives. They are good at thinking of novel and productive ways to do things and introduce new ideas to groups in which they work. They frequently enjoy creating art, music, writing or acting, but may show creativity in other ways, such as designing computer games.
See our page on lateral thinking for more about this.
People with this attribute have the ability to soar above problems like an eagle or a helicopter and see the whole picture in perspective. They are good at seeing patterns in complex data: identifying the key points in complex information. They are usually good at putting things in perspective and finding the links between seemingly unconnected information. They have the ability to ignore the superficial and irrelevant and focus on what is of real import. They are good at looking at a range of possible solutions and then narrowing these down to the best one.
Because they like to focus on the bigger picture rather than fine detail and are more concerned with major issues than with details: this can sometimes be a weakness.
See our page on problem solving for more on this.
Analytical individuals use facts and logic when making decisions. They prefer to use objective and critical analysis and are logical and rigorous in thought. They are excellent with data and good at evaluating competing proposals.
They are ruled by their head and not their heart and are not easily swayed by emotional arguments. They tend to be sceptical and sometimes can hurt others in this way, accepting conflict as a normal part of relationships with people.
See our page on decision making for more on this.
They have clear destinations and set themselves specific and clearly defined goals. Getting things done quickly and efficiently is more important to them than getting them done perfectly. Getting the task completed successfully is the only thing of real importance.
They are impatient with delays and obstacles and become restless and discontented if they are doing nothing.
See our page on time management for more about this.
These people plan things in advance before taking action. They are well organised individuals who are good at keeping to deadlines, indeed they work best and avoid stress when able to keep ahead of deadlines. They use targets, dates and standard routines to manage their lives. They often keep their work space tidy so that they can work efficiently.
Careers where planning and organising are very important include: logistics manager, retail manager, events manager, advertising account manager, charity fund-raiser, publishing editor,training manager, marketing and librarian.
See our page on action planning for more about this
Determined people take pleasure in completing tasks and persevere to achieve whatever they are striving for. They work hard to reach their goals and tackle obstacles as they arise. They finish what they start. It is not about being a perfectionist and the goals they have tend to be realistic.
They are resilient, taking a positive attitude towards frustration and failure. They persevere when things are not working out and persist in a course of action in spite of obstacles.
They tend to be intrinsically motivated and do not need extrinsic rewards (money, prizes etc.) to help them achieve: research suggests such motivators do little to help us persevere over the long term.
Careers where determination and resilience are very important include: police officer, environmental health officer, estate agent, tax inspector, barrister, selling, retail manager, marketing, journalist and charity fund-raiser.
See our page on determination for more about this.
Leaders consciously seek, and frequently obtain, leadership roles. They usually lead and coordinate the team effort. They are good at persuading people to their point of view. They stick up for their opinions and try to argue persuasively and with logic for them.
They have to be careful not to be confrontational, opinionated and to impose their views without consultation.
See our page on leadership skills for more about this.
Conscientious individuals have strong self control. They are responsible, diligent and usually somewhat cautious and slow to act.
They tend to plan in advance and focus on achieving their aims, focusing on goals and following things through to completion. Tend to feel guilty if they have not completed a task.
It can can be a drawback in jobs with lots of change: as these people persist with task rather than adapting to changing circumstances.
|Employer to applicant: “In this job we need someone who is responsible.”
Applicant: “I’m the one you need. In my last job, every time anything went wrong, they said I was responsible.”
Adaptable individuals are very adaptable and resourceful and like variety. They are good at multi-tasking (doing a number of tasks at once): juggling a number of balls at the same time. They are very flexible and comfortable about moving into action without a plan; planning on-the-go. Naturally tolerant of time pressure, they work best close to deadlines. They tend to avoid commitments which interfere with their flexibility, and freedom to do things.
Adaptable people make good event managers and work well in advertising, the media and sales.
Other careers requiring a lot of adaptability include barrister, journalist, arts administrator, hotel managerand management consultancy.
See our page on adaptability for more on this.
Cooperative individuals tend to be prepared to compromise their own ideas and views to get on well with others. They naturally seek consensus and support and praise other team members. They try to keep relations between group members harmonious. they help others to find compromises between differing viewpoints.
They don’t normally like competitive situations.
See our page on team working for more on this.
No one can make you feel inferior without your consent.
|Assertiveness is the ability to communicate with others in a clear and direct manner. It has been described as “The Art of telling people what you would like them to do, in a way that they don’t feel threatened or put down”. It differs from being aggressive, where you may get what you want, but may upset people and hinder your progress in the long run.
Some people confuse assertiveness with getting your own way all the time, but there may be occasions when you take the decision to back down on an issue, because you realise that the other person has rights too. It also differs from being passive, where you let others get their own way in most situations and don’t stand up for your rights.
Assertive behaviour helps you to:
Being assertive helps you to exercise more control over your life and relationships, and thus may help to increase your self-confidence. It helps you to reduce the stress in your life as you are less bothered about the opinions of others. Non-assertive behaviour can lead to loss of respect from others and loss of self-respect in the long term.
Some people confuse
It can be used in many situations, but can be an important factor in performing well at interviews. In interviews assertive behaviour will help you to come across as a confident candidate who is likely to be able to get things done. It is characterised by:
There follows a set of 12 questions relating to your behaviour at interview. Try to answer each question according to how you think you would react in the situation described. The answers to these questions and the analysis of the answers are for your eyes only, so answer as honestly as you can. Try to imagine yourself faced with these situations in a job interview however unlikely they may seem, and then choose from the suggested responses the one closest to what you could imagine yourself saying or doing.
Answer the questions, but say that you would like to add some information that you considered to be more directly supporting your application.
Answer the questions feeling increasingly disappointed and depressed.
Tell the interviewer that the questions were beside the point.
Break off the argument while you can still be calm and friendly saying that the discussion is obviously not leading to agreement.
Continue the argument looking for opportunities to offend the interviewer.
Capitulate and accept the interviewer’s opinion.
Answer yes or no , feeling at once relieved not to have to give longer explanations and anxious that you are not giving enough information?
Expand your answers, so that you provide more information in support of your application than the questions demand?
Answer yes or no in irritated or offhand tones that make it clear that you are critical of the interviewer’s style?
Become very formal by way of keeping the interviewer at a distance.
Assume a provocatively nonchalant pose and try to overawe the interviewer in your response.
Speak up and say what you mean in as straightforward a way as you can manage.
Hasten to assure the interviewer that there were no other applicants for the post, that the committee was not well organised, met infrequently and had no power, and that your own contribution was minimal and inept.
Expand on the importance of your contribution in this and in other posts seeking to overwhelm the interviewer with your ability.
Accept the compliment with a brief indication of pleasure.
Maintain an indifferent silence while you wait for the interviewer to recover.
Briefly express your sympathy and wait patiently to see how the interviewer responds.
Show your embarrassment and attempt to soothe the interviewer’s distress by minimising the cause.
Tell the interviewer that they could have seen from your application form that your course did not cover this subject.
Flounder into the question feeling that you cannot admit that you do not know the answer.
Say that your course did not cover this subject and that you do not know the answer, but go on to offer a probable answer based on logic, limited knowledge and common sense.
You offer a corresponding display of anger.
You shrink back in your chair or beat a hasty retreat to the door.
You try to remain calm and tell the interviewer as firmly as you can that you consider their remarks insulting and that you have no intention of contributing to the interview until they calm down. You add that if they continue in their current vein you will consider the interview to be at an end.
Admit to your nervousness with as much good humour as you can muster adding a very brief explanation: such as that the situation is uniquely unfamiliar and that the outcome of the interview is very important to you.
Adopt a truculent manner to disguise your anxiety.
Make no comment on your condition for fear of bringing it to the interviewer’s attention.
Allow the interviewer to see your perplexity but not your amusement in the hope that they will take pity on you and help you out?
Allow the interviewer to see that you find certain aspects of the question comic, but answer it seriously, thinking your way steadily through its complexities and asking for clarification on points of obscurity?
Disguise both your feelings of perplexity and amusement and resist answering the question on the grounds it is stupid?
Admit that you had some misgivings or reservations on some points of policy and single out one or two examples while at the same time acknowledging that your views may stem from your lack of experience and background knowledge?
Praise the policy statement adding that you did not feel that your endorsement was really significant?
Launch into a comprehensive negative criticism of all the points of policy with which you disagreed together with the changes you would apply if you were the senior policy maker?
Respond with anger?
Say – in as even a tone as you can manage and without demonstrating the anger you may feel – that you are offended by the suggestion, and give a reasoned assessment of the difficulty of the course?
Agree with the interviewer for fear of giving offence, although you feel hurt, intimidated and angry
Assertive Responses are based on clear, open, straightforward communications. They demonstrate a respect both for the interviewer and yourself, saying what you mean without being impolite, asking for what you want without making demands. This style is far more likely to create a positive impression than either aggressiveness or non-assertion. Assertive behaviour is not specifically designed to get you what you want in all situations, in fact it involves negotiation and compromise. The long term effects of such a style are that you are likely to develop a better sense of control and of having value and significance.
Direct, responsible, honest, clear, accepting, forgiving, spontaneous, effective responses.
|Be open, but remember that the interview is not a confessional. Be positive – even about negative experiences.|
Aggressive Responses are characterised by an attempt to punish or outcountenance the person with whom you are dealing. Such responses may occasionally be appropriate or even necessary, but you are asking for trouble if you use this style in an interview. You might just get away with the aggressive responses in questions 4, 5 and 6, but don’t bank on it. If you are generally aggressive in your behaviour, most people will choose to stay clear of you and to organise their jobs and their lives in ways that do not involve you.
Arrogant, pushy, bullying, blaming, sarcastic, vengeful, callous, manipulative, offensive responses.
Passive or non-Assertive Responses may seem polite and accommodating, but they give the impression of lack of drive, confidence and self-respect. Unless you are applying for a job that offers no room for initiative, they are unlikely to create a good impression, and as a general style passive or non-assertive behaviour is likely to leave you feeling like a doormat and full of resentment. Interviewers may pity you, but few of them are likely to choose you.
Apologetic, inhibited, deferential, powerless, avoiding, moaning responses.
The purpose of this exercise is to demonstrate and make a distinction between the different kinds of response that interviewees make in job interviews and to give you a chance to consider if you need to adjust your usual style in this situation.
|Before you start this quiz, remember that there are no absolute rules for CVs. The only real arbiter of a CV is whether it gets you the job or not: a CV covered in bright pink polkadots on orange paper is a successful CV if it results in a job offer!
There are 23 questions for you to answer and you will be given a score at the end. Click on “First Question” to begin.
TRUE PERHAPS FALSE
Do remember that writing CVs is not an exact science, so you might disagree with one or two of the answers given here. How many points you scored is not important as long as you have gained some understand of what makes a good CV. After all the best CVs are those in which the writer has looked at all the advice but now goes further to produce a CV is a style that most suits them as an individual.
In this quiz you will be asked 18 questions about interview skills. For each question, you have to choose from one of three or four alternatives. You can choose only one of the alternatives. Only your first response will be marked. At the end of the quiz, you will be given a score on your knowledge of interviews.
The following quiz will ask you a variety of questions about your non-verbal communication in interviews. Don’t take it too seriously, but it should provide some useful pointers on what to do and what not to do.
A. The interviewee feels defensive
B. The interviewee feels cold
C. The interviewee is becoming more relaxed
A. Content – what they say.
B. How they sound (tone of voice – accent, pitch, variation and tempo of speech).
C. Body Language.
A. Firm handshake
B. Regular eye contact
C. Sitting up straight
E. Head nodding
F. Loud voice
A. They are of similar status. They agree with each others views.
B. They are of different status. They disagree with each other.
A. You are treated like a long-lost relative
B. You wake up in hospital with 2 black eyes, and a bruised ego.
10 points or more and you are a body language/NVC wizard!
Don’t take this quiz too seriously of course: non-verbal communication is notoriously open to misinterpretation – even by experts. The key point to take from this exercise is that how you act is at least as important in an interview as what you say!
1. The posture with arms and legs crossed (POSTURE B) is called a CLOSED posture. It usually signifies a defensive or negative attitude, but beware of misinterpretation – the person may just be cold or just not have pockets! If the body is very erect and bent back it can also convey invulnerability. The other posture with arms and legs uncrossed (POSTURE A) is called an OPEN posture and usually suggests a more relaxed, open attitude.
Give yourself 2 points for answer A.
2. Research by Albert Mehrabian suggested that body language was the most important, followed by how you sound, with what is actually said being the least important! Mehrabian now says that this only applies when a person is talking about their likes and dislikes “unless a communicator is talking about their feelings or attitudes, these equations are not applicable”. Even so, it’s still a salutary lesson that we shouldn’t just focus on a person’s words.
Get 2 points for answer C
Researchers at the University of Glasgow found that people take under a second to form an impression of someone’s personality based on just their voice. Voices transmit information about our gender, age, strength and personality. Researchers extracted the single word “hello” from passages recorded by a number of individuals and asked 320 people to rate this for personality traits including trustworthiness, dominance and attractiveness. All ten traits scored on average 0.92 meaning that people agreed closely to the extent each voice represented each trait. The pitch of the voice influenced how trustworthy the person seemed: a man who raises his pitch becomes more trustworthy, whereas a girl who glides from a high to a low pitch is seen as more trustworthy than one whose voice goes up at the end of the word. Apparently Margaret Thatcher and the Queen were both trained to make their voices seem more dominant.
|Researchers at Goldsmith’s College found that female students who gave sidelong glances, gazed at the floor, fiddled with their hands, touched their hair, nodded their heads vigorously and kept answers to questions short were more likely to be offered jobs.
Men who faced the interviewer head-on, boasted about their success, didn’t nod their heads too much and gave long answers to questions did better.
This was based on 60 students applying for jobs with leading companies. The study hoped to help interviewers to avoid unconscious discrimination due to sexual stereotypes.
3. Although all of these (except perhaps a loud voice) probably do contribute towards a good impression at interview, the three that had a statistically significant correlation were found to be eye contact,smiling, and surprisingly nodding your head! To complicate matters further, some recent research found that head nodding was seen as positive in women, but not in men, whereas too much eye contact was seen as negative in women candidates! (see panel to the right).
Karl Grammer of the University of Vienna found that women show interest in a man by regular eye contact, toying with their hair, tidying their clothes, and regular head nodding. He also found they make the same signals in the first minute of meeting a man whether they like him or not. Such flirting only shows real interest if it continues longer than four minutes. Grammer suggests women use the signals to keep the man’s interest until they have decided he is worthwhile getting to know better.
We find people who look directly at us more likeable and more attractive. This is especially true if they are smiling. However staring at the interviewer all the time could be perceived as hostile!
Having a deep voice may also pay benefits at interview. Researchers at Duke University found that voters are more likely to pick candidates with a deeper voice whether the speaker was male or female. They made recordings of both male and female speakers and then altered the pitch of their subjects’ voices and found that listeners “voted” more frequently for the “candidate” with the lower voice. Women with lower voices were perceived to be stronger, more trustworthy and competent. A lower tone gave male candidates a distinct advantage on the corporate ladder with a 22.1 MHz pitch decrease equalling an annual compensation increase of $187,000!
|Some thirty inches from my nose
The frontier of my Person goes,
And all the untilled air between
Is private pagus or demesne.
Stranger, unless with bedroom eyes
I beckon you to fraternize,
Beware of rudely crossing it:
I have no gun, but I can spit.
Different cultures have different interpersonal distances. In European culture 30 inches is about the acceptable limit – closer than this and you may feel that your body space has been invaded making you uncomfortable. In other cultures such as that of Arabia the acceptable distance is much closer whereas in the USA it is slightly more than in Europe. This can least to perceptions of impoliteness and rudeness in interactions between different cultural groups.
In one US embassy party in Arabia it was noticed that the Americans were nearly all standing with their backs against a wall when talking to Arabic guests – every time the Arabic guests had tried to get closer to maintain the normal body space for their culture, the Americans had backed away – this had continued until they were against the walls!
A US study found that students with a higher body mass index were less likely to be offered a place at graduate school. The study found evidence of a link in people’s minds between BMI and lack of academic ability. This association is of course completely false but is is another example of the well known finding that people who are deemed to be physically attractive are perceived to have positive qualities.
Get 2 points for any of B, D or E
4. When people copy each others posture, it is called postural echo or mirroring. e.g. in a pub, friends will often pick up their drinks at the same time. It occurs subconsciously when people have similar views, the same status, or like each other. Strangers often studiously avoid mirroring each others postures. Paraphrasing what the other person is saying to you is a verbal version of mirroring, and can show that you are listening carefully to the other person.
In research on this an actor played an interviewee and mimicked the posture of the interviewer. Interviewers showed no awareness of this mimicry but rated the interviewer more favourably considering that he thought more like they did and identified with them. However, beware of consciously mirroring interviewers to try to make them like you – most personnel managers will probably know far more about this than you do!
Get 2 points for A
Research in the journal “Personality and Individual Differences” by McCormick, Geniole, Keyes and Carre found that men with wider faces are more likely to cheat. Men were no more likely than women to cheat, but men with larger facial width-to-height ratios were both more likely to cheat, and cheated to a greater extent. These wide-faced men also scored high on the psychopathic personality factor of “fearless dominance”
A study published earlier this year that found a correlation between facial width-to-height ratios and testosterone concentrations. “Testosterone is associated with dominance, personalized power, leadership, and with antisocial behaviour and risk-taking,” Testosterone levels of boys at puberty may influence “both fearless dominance and face structure,” giving them a certain appearance and also a tendency to behave assertively. Many US presidents have been diagnosed with “fearless dominance”: properly channelled aggression and dominance can confer benefits and positive outcomes.
Another paper suggested that men with wider faces are more likely to explicitly deceive their counterparts in a negotiation, and are more willing to cheat.
According to research at Harvard Business Schoolstriking a “power pose” (an expansive posture with open limbs rather than one with crossed arms and legs) raises testosterone levels by an average of 20% and lowers cortisol (the stress hormone) by a similar amount. The posture above is one power position, as is standing with hands on hips with legs apart. Smiling and sitting up straight can lead to positive feelings whereas sitting with hunched, bent shoulders and frowning can make you feel unhappy! Positive posture, like positive visualisation can inculcate positive thoughts leading to positive behaviours.
Adopting power poses beforehand can make you feel more confident at interview. Expansive body postures such as standing upright with hands on your hips, leaning over a desk with hands firmly on the surface, or steepling your hands can increase testosterone, decrease stress, and make you feel more in control, more confident and more assertive. Practicing power poses right before an interview can also increase performance. Research at Harvard Business School found that holding power poses for two minutes before interview led candidates to be evaluated more favourably and increased their chances of a job offer by 20%. So if you’re worried about a job interview or presentation, strike a power pose a few minutes beforehand (not of course at the interview!) but in the washroom, or before leaving home.
5. Position B is called the “throne” position. It reinforces the interviewer’s sense of control he/she can see everything that goes on in the room. Old fashioned managers often use this type of arrangement. Also the interviewee’s chair is a long way from the desk increasing the formality. Position A with the desk touching the wall allows for a more informal and less dominating encounter. Sitting side on to the door allows for ease of approach. Sometimes the desk may be absent completely. Doctors and lecturers often use this arrangement. However be careful not to read too much into desk positions, the interviewer may have just borrowed the office for the interview and may not be able to influence the arrangement!
Out of interest researchers at the University of Minnesota found that a tidy desk may suggest generosity, and conventionality whereas a messy desk may relate to creative thinking and stimulating new ideas.“Disorderly environments seem to inspire breaking free of tradition, which can produce fresh insights. Orderly environments, in contrast, encourage convention and playing it safe.”
Get 2 points for answer B
6. Putting your hand up with five spread fingers is an insult gesture in Greece! Be aware that people from other cultures have different distances they stand apart, loudness of voice, gaze behaviours etc. which can easily be misinterpreted by people of a different culture.
Get 2 points for answer B
Careers Explorer is an easy to use program to generate career ideas developed by the University of Kent Careers and Employability Service. By answering job-related questions you can compare your skills, interests and values with common graduate jobs. It will allow you to see which jobs might be worth further investigation as a future career.
Explorer can’t tell you your perfect job! There are no right or wrong answers. It simply takes your answers and compares them with ratings for a variety of jobs to produce a list of best matches. If you make false assumptions about yourself, for example you think you are a good communicator when you are not, the program will produce job suggestions which match your assumptions, therefore try to answer honestly. Explorer deals mainly with jobs open to graduates of any subject, or jobs which you can enter via a postgraduate course (e.g. law, librarianship, psychology). Jobs which require a full undergraduate degree such as electronics or architecture are less well catered for. For these, see What can I do with my degree in…. orProspects Planner a sophisticated career choice program.
Don’t be afraid to change your answers on a “what if” basis or to try the program again at a later date – your values, interests and skills may have changed. You don’t have to answer all the questions (although you must answer at least 3to get meaningful results). You can get a profile of jobs based on answers to just a few questions if you wish to explore the effects of certain factors.
You will need Flash to use Explorer. You probably have it installed, but if not, you can download it by clicking here Be patient as the program may take a few seconds to load. If PRINTING your results change your printer settings from “portrait” to “landscape” to get a better printout.
The program is very easy to use, but if you encounter difficulties, please use the walkthough here.
We’d like your feedback on Explorer: what did you find most useful? Did you have any problems using the program? How could it be improved? Please email Bruce Woodcock B.E.Woodcock@kent.ac.uk with your comments.
If having used Careers Explorer you are still finding it difficult to choose a career direction, then be aware that your skills may be pulling you in one direction, whereas your interests and values are pulling you in another. For example you might be good at maths, but might dislike the thought of using it in a job. The next step might be to discuss these issues with a careers adviser.
The program is very easy to use, but if you encounter difficulties, please use the following walkthough.
When you open the program you will find a list of factors important in career choice. The first one is WRITING. If you click on this it will open a drop-down menu with a list of choices (see right):
Choose your response from the list. In this case the user has responded that they would like very much a career involving lots of writing.
The definitions box will give a definition of what is meant by this factor
If you would like to ignore this factor , then leave your response as neutral.
Once you have made choices for at least three factors, click on the SUGGEST CAREERS button and a list of career suggestions will appear (see right):
You can click on any job title to bring up brief details of the job, in this case Event Manager
You can if you wish to then click on the BLUE UNDERLINED JOB TITLE in the job description, to go to a web page about this career. This will open in a new window, so make sure that your browser is not set to block pop ups or it will not appear!
Match up the skill with it’s description by clicking on pairs of cards
For a harder challenge click on the “Ancient Jobs” button and find out what loblolly boys, bullwhackers, pettifoggers, quarrel pickers, necessary women, bodgers and nob thatchers did!
ambient replenishment controller = supermarket shelf stacker
regional head of services, infrastructure and procurement = caretaker.
humour enablement consultant = comedian
location change management specialist = house removals person
arthymic oscillating technician = shaker
person-centred transition facilitator = social worker
life explorer, multimedia storyteller and experience architect = journalist
head of offending services = probation officer
low intensity psychological wellbeing practitioner = mental health nurse
For more on this see http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/8537055.stm
Here you can try answering common questions found in graduate interviews and gain advice on how to answer. The questions are based on real questions asked at interview to University of Kent students and graduates. You will get tips on how to answer each question.
|We need graduates who have the confidence to get involved, who think critically about their work, and who have the initiative to find ways of doing things better.
Chemistry is the study of the composition, behaviour and properties of matter, and of the elements of the Earth and its atmosphere.
In this section of GCSE Bitesize you’ll find learner guides and video clips designed to support the latest GCSE and IGCSE Chemistry curricula. We have brought together content relevant to the AQA, OCR, Edexcel, WJEC and CCEAspecifications in one expanded programme of study.
To access GCSE chemistry, please choose the course you are studying:
BBC Chemistry Audio
Online revision resources
To help your GCSE students, here are a few of our favourite online revision resources:
A small boy is sent to bed by his father. Five minutes later…..”Da-ad….”
“I’m thirsty. Can you bring drink of water?”
“No, You had your chance. Lights out.”
Five minutes later: “Da-aaaad…..”
“I’m THIRSTY. Can I have a drink of water??”
I told you NO! If you ask again, I’ll have to spank you!!”
Five minutes later……”Daaaa-aaaad…..”
“When you come in to spank me, can you bring a drink of water?”
A little girl asked her mother, “Can I go outside and play with the boys? Her mother replied, “No, you can’t play with the boys, they’re too rough.” The little girl thought about it for a few moments and asked, “If I can find a smooth one, can I play with him?”
Once there was a great war between the beasts and the birds. Bat was on the birds’ side. In the first battle, the birds were badly beaten. As soon as Bat saw that the battle was going against them, he crept away, hid under a log, and stayed there until the fight was over.
When the animals were going home. Bat slipped in among them.
After they had gone some distance, they saw him and asked one another: “How is this? Bat is one of those that fought against us!”
Bat heard them and he said: “Oh, no! I am one of you; I don’t belong to the bird people. Did you ever see one of those people who had teeth and hair? You can say that I belong to the bird people, but I don’t; I am one of your own people.”
They didn’t say anything more; they let Bat stay with them.
Soon after, there was another battle; in that battle birds won. As Bat’s side was getting beaten, he slipped away and hid under a log. When the battle was over and birds were going home, Bat went in among them.
When they noticed him, they said: “You are our enemy; we saw you fighting against us.”
“Oh, no,” said Bat, “I am one of you; I don’t belong to those beasts. Did you ever see one of those people who had wings?”
They didn’t say anything more; they let him stay with them.
So Bat went back and forth as long as the war lasted. At the end of the war, birds and beasts held a council to see what to do with him. At last they said to Bat, “From now on, you will fly around alone at night, and you will never have any friends, either among those that fly, or those that walk.”
Invisible One Story
There was once a large Indian village situated on the border of a lake. At the edge of the village was a lodge, in which dwelt a being who was always invisible. He had a sister who attended to his wants, and it was known that any girl who could see him might marry him. Nearly all the girls in the village made an attempt.
Towards evening, when the Invisible One was supposed to be returning home, his sister would walk with any girls who came down to the shore of the lake. She could see her brother, since to her he was always visible, and upon seeing him she would say to her companions, “Do you see my brother?” And they would mostly answer, “Yes.”
And then the sister would say, “Of what is his shoulder-strap made?” But sometimes she would inquire other things, such as, “With what does he draw his sled?” And they would reply, “A strip of rawhide,” or “A green withe,” or something of the kind. And then she, knowing they had not told the truth, would reply quietly, “Very well, let us return to the wigwam!”
As they entered the place she would bid them not to take a certain seat, for it was his. After they had helped to cook the supper they would wait with great curiosity to see him eat. They saw proof that he was a real person, for as he took off his moccasins they became visible, and his sister hung them up; but beyond this they beheld nothing not even when they remained all night, as many did.
There dwelt in the village an old man, a widower, with three daughters. The youngest of these was very small, weak, and often ill. Her sorry condition did not prevent her sisters, especially the eldest, from treating her with great cruelty. The second daughter was kinder, and sometimes did not bother the poor abused little girl, but the oldest would burn the youngest’s hands and face with hot coals; yes, her whole body was scarred with marks made by torture, so that people called her the rough-faced girl. And when her father, coming home, asked how it was that the child was so disfigured, her sister would promptly say that it was the fault of the young girl herself, because having been forbidden to go near the fire, she had disobeyed and fallen in.
Now it came to pass that it entered the heads of the two elder sisters of this poor girl that they would go and try their fortune at seeing the Invisible One. So they clad themselves in their finest and strove to look their fairest. They found the Invisible One’s sister at home and so walked down to the water with her.
Then when He came, being asked if they saw him, they said, “Certainly,” and also replied to the question of the shoulder-strap or sled cord, “A piece of rawhide.” In saying which, they lied, like the rest, for they had seen nothing, and got nothing for their pains.
When their father returned home the next evening, he brought with him many of the pretty little shells from which wampum was made, and they were soon busy stringing them.
That day poor little burnt-faced girl, who had always run barefoot, got a pair of her father’s old moccasins and put them into water that they might become flexible to wear. And begging her sisters for a few wampum shells, the eldest just called her “a lying little pest,” but the other gave her a few. And having no clothes beyond a few rags, the poor creature went into the woods and got a few sheets of birch bark, of which she made a dress, putting some figures on the bark. She also made a cap, leggings, and handkerchief. Having put on her father’s great old moccasins, which came nearly up to her knees, she went forth to try her luck. For even this little thing would try to see the Invisible One in the great wigwam at the edge of the village.
She had to overcome one long storm of ridicule and hisses, yells and hoots, from her own door to that of the Invisible One. Her sisters tried to shame her, and told her to stay home, but she would not obey; and all the idlers, seeing this strange little creature in her odd clothes, cried, “Shame!” But she went on, for she was greatly resolved; it may be that some spirit inspired her.
Now this poor small wretch in her mad attire, with her hair singed off and her little face as full of burns and scars as there are holes in a sieve, was most kindly received by the sister of the Invisible One. His sister was very noble and knew more than the mere outside of things as the world knows them. And as the brown of the evening sky became black, she took her down to the lake. And soon the girls knew that He had come.
Then the sister said, “Do you see him?” And the other replied in awe, “Truly I do, and He is wonderful.”
“And what is his sled string?” “It is,” she replied, “the Rainbow.” And great fear was on her.
“But, my sister,” said the other, “what is his bow-string?” “His bow-string is the Milky Way.”, she responded.
“You have truly seen him,” said the sister. And, taking the girl home, she bathed her. As she washed, all the scars disappeared from face and body. Her hair grew again; it was very long, and like a blackbird’s wing. Her eyes were like stars. In all the world there was no such beauty. Then from her treasures she gave her a wedding garment, and adorned her. Under the comb, as she combed her, her hair grew. It was a great marvel to behold.
Then, having done this, she told her to take the wife’s seat in the wigwam, that by which her brother sat, the seat next to the door. And when He entered, terrible and beautiful, he smiled and said, “So we are found out!”
“Yes,” was her reply. So she became his wife.
A Maine Tall Tale
One fine day an old Maine man was fishing and fishing on his favorite lake and catching nary a thing. Finally, he gave up and walked back along the shore to his fishing shack. When he got close to the front door, he saw it was open. Being of a suspicious nature, he walked to the door quietly and looked inside. There was a big black bear. It was just pulling the cork out of his molasses jug with its teeth. The molasses spilled all over the floor and the bear rubbed his paw in it, smearing it all over.
Well, the old man was not the timid sort. He went to the back of the shack, put his head in the window and gave a loud yell. The bear jumped and ran out the door. It was running strangely. The old man saw that the bear was holding up the foot covered with molasses so it wouldn’t get dirty.
The bear ran to the lake shore. Standing on its hind legs, it held up the paw full of molasses. Soon all the flies and bugs and mosquitoes were swarming all over the sticky sweet paw. Then the bear waded into the water with his sticky paw full of bugs. It held the paw out over the water. Suddenly, a big trout came jumping out of the water trying to get to the flies. The bear gave it a swat and it flew to the shore and flopped there. Then another fish jumped into the air after the flies, followed swiftly by another. Every time a fish jumped after his paw, the bear cuffed it ashore. Soon it had a large pile.
Finally, the bear decided he had enough fish and waded to shore. The bear had caught a mess of fish any fisherman would envy. The old man had caught nothing. He watched that bear eat half a dozen trout, his stomach rumbling. All he had for dinner was some bread and what was left of the molasses. Finally the bear paused in his eating, and looked over to the bushes where the old man was hidden. The bear stood up and laid the remaining fish in a row. Then it walked away up the shore. It kept looking back at the bushes where the old man stood.
The old man crept out of the bushes and down to the shore. Sure enough, the bear had left six large trout for him. He looked over at the bear. It was standing at the edge of the wood watching. “Thanks a lot,” the old man called to the bear. The bear waved the now-clean paw at the old man and disappeared into the thicket. “Well,” said the old man, “That’s the first time a bear has ever paid me for my molasses.”
The old man never hunted bears again.
One day a farmer’s donkey fell down into a well. The animal cried piteously for hours as the farmer tried to figure out a way to get him out. Finally he decided it was probably impossible and the animal was old and the well was dry anyway, so it just wasn’t worth it to try and retrieve the donkey. So the farmer asked his neighbours to come over and help him cover up the well. They all grabbed shovels and began to shovel dirt into the well.
At first, when the donkey realized what was happening he cried horribly. Then, to everyone’s amazement, he quieted down and let out some happy brays. A few shovel loads later, the farmer looked down the well to see what was happening and was astonished at what he saw. With every shovel of dirt that hit his back, the donkey was shaking it off and taking a step up.
As the farmer’s neighbours continued to shovel dirt on top of the animal, he continued to shake it off and take a step up. Pretty soon, to everyone’s amazement, the donkey stepped up over the edge of the well and trotted off.
Will and Guy consider that the moral of this tale is: Life is going to shovel dirt on you. The trick to getting out of the well is to shake it off and take a step up. Through applying wisdom every adversity can be turned into a stepping stone. The way to get out of the deepest well is by never giving up but by shaking yourself off and taking a step up.
The moral is what happens to you isn’t nearly as important as how you react to it.
One of the pots had a crack in it while the other pot was perfect and always delivered a full portion of water. At the end of the long walk from the stream to the house, the cracked pot arrived only half full.
For a full two years this went on daily, with the woman bringing home only one and a half pots of water. Of course, the perfect pot was proud of its accomplishments. But the poor cracked pot was ashamed of its own imperfection, and miserable that it could only do half of what it had been made to do.
After 2 years of what it perceived to be bitter failure, it spoke to the woman one day by the stream. ‘I am ashamed of myself, because this crack in my side causes water to leak out all the way back to your house.’ The old woman smiled, ‘Did you notice that there are flowers on your side of the path, but not on the other pot’s side?
That’s because I have always known about your flaw, so I planted flower seeds on your side of the path, and every day while we walk back, you water them.’ ‘For two years I have been able to pick these beautiful flowers to decorate the table.’ Without you being just the way you are, there would not be this beauty to grace the house.’
Each of us has our own unique flaw…
But it’s the cracks and flaws we each have that make our lives together so very interesting and rewarding. You’ve just got to take each person for what they are and look for the good in them.
To all of my crackpot friends, have a great day and remember to smell the flowers, on your side of the path. Take the time to absorb this inspirational Chinese proverb.
Funny Story About the Cops ~ Positive IDA guy walked into a little corner store with a shotgun and demanded all of the cash from the cash drawer.
After the cashier put the cash in a bag, the robber saw a bottle of Scotch that he wanted behind the counter on the shelf. He told the cashier to put it in the bag as well.
But the cashier refused and said, “No, because I don’t believe you are over 21.”
The robber said he was, but the clerk still refused to give it to him because she didn’t believe him.
At this point, the robber took his driver’s license out of his wallet and gave it to the clerk.
The clerk looked it over and agreed that the man was in fact over 21 and she put the Scotch in the bag.
The robber then ran from the store with his loot.
The cashier promptly called the police and gave the name and address of the robber that he got off the license.
They arrested the robber two hours later.
This guy definitely wins the Stupid Prize.
Myanmar Burma Guest House
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